The disease is difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are very similar to other gynecological pathologies. The following signs may indicate varicose veins of the uterus: discomfort during sexual intercourse, severe lower abdominal pain appearing periodically, cycle failure with prolonged and sparse bleeding. But during the birth of a child, these symptoms may not appear or indicate other diseases.
What is it - varicose veins of the uterus and how it affects a woman's well-being and reproductive function? This is a pathological process characterized by elongation and dilation of blood vessels, the appearance of nodules, thinning of the venous walls and difficulty in the process of blood circulation. Uterine varicose veins are a relatively rare disease that has no specific symptoms and is difficult to detect.
Factors of origin
The causes of the development of uterine vein pathology are mainly as follows:
- An abortion story.
- Sedentary lifestyle during pregnancy.
- Hormonal imbalance (with a predominance of progesterone, which helps reduce the tone of the pelvic and uterine vessels).
- Insufficiency of vascular valves.
- Untreated inflammatory processes.
- Prolonged use of oral contraceptives.
- hereditary predisposition.
- Menstrual disorders.
- Chronic forms of other diseases that affect the condition of the reproductive organs.
The main symptom of the disease is a dull aching pain in the lower abdomen, sometimes radiating to the lower back or sacrum. There are no characteristic symptoms of varicose veins of the uterus, they appear with equal frequency in other gynecological diseases.
Groups at risk
Often, varicose veins in the uterus appear or progress in a pregnant woman, as the development of the disease is affected by an increased level of progesterone, an increase in weight and venous pressure. Women who are carrying a child should, if possible, lead an active lifestyle, as well as regularly visit a doctor who is responsible for the pregnancy.
Women at risk for varicose veins include:
- with a large number of abortions in history;
- leading a sedentary lifestyle;
- constantly using underwear for weight loss;
- with sexual dysfunction;
- with menstrual irregularities.
Such women should review their habits, adhere to a diet rich in vegetables and fruits, move more and monitor the condition of the intestines.
Symptoms and signs
In the vast majority of cases, uterine varices appear with latent or non-pronounced symptoms. One of the most commonly reported complaints is discomfort during or after sex, as well as during physical exertion and during menstruation. Sometimes there is an increase in vaginal tenderness, an increase in PMS symptoms and an increase in the interval between periods up to 1. 5-2 months.
These symptoms are characteristic of many pelvic organ pathologies. Therefore, it is quite difficult to diagnose varicose veins in the uterus. According to statistics, only 10% of patients with this pathology can be diagnosed at the onset of the disease. If misdiagnosed, the disease continues to progress and over time can lead to serious consequences.
Diagnosis of varicose veins is possible with the help of laboratory and instrumental research methods. Uterine ultrasound with a vaginal sensor will allow you to visualize the condition of the veins. CT and X-ray in this case are uninformative. Laboratory studies make it possible to determine the composition of blood.
If varicose veins of the uterus are suspected, the specialist should perform a vaginal examination and obtain the patient's history. During the examination, the main diagnostic sign of the disease is a bluish tinge of the cervix and vaginal mucosa, enlarged veins and joints.
Ultrasound ultrasound has a great value for establishing the diagnosis. It can be done in two ways: transvaginally, i. e. by inserting a vaginal probe and through the abdominal wall, i. e. transabdominally (pictured).
Venous system pathology can only be visualized by transvaginal ultrasound. Upon detection of the disease, the doctor should refer the woman to a doctor specializing in venous pathologies (phlebologist). He, in turn, will prescribe phlebography for a thorough examination of the venous system if ultrasound cannot give an accurate picture of the condition. This procedure is contraindicated for pregnant women and people with iodine intolerance.
A laboratory study helps to determine the discrepancy between the parameters of the coagulogram, which may be the cause of venous pathology. If there are too many platelets in the blood, then there is an increase in clotting and viscosity, which also does not allow it to circulate adequately.
Varicose veins of the uterus during pregnancy
Varicose veins in the uterus during pregnancy in most cases develop in connection with damage to the veins of the legs. Treatment of the disease is recommended to be done after the birth of the child, and during pregnancy symptomatic therapy is prescribed. It is shown taking venotonics, wearing compression underwear, physiotherapy exercise complexes.
Uterine varicose veins during pregnancy occur rarely, but it creates certain problems. Childbirth is most often done by cesarean section. Throughout the pregnancy, a woman should be under the medical supervision of a phlebologist.
How to treat varicose veins of the uterus? Regardless of whether a woman is pregnant or not, treatment of the disease is performed by a gynecologist together with a phlebologist. In the case of pregnancy, the question of the optimal method of delivery is decided jointly by these specialists after the degree of vascular pathology is detected by ultrasound.
Pharmacotherapy includes venotonics. Anticoagulants are also prescribed.
Women carrying a child are not prescribed medication, as such a risk to the fetus is not justified. Pregnant women can be prescribed a contrast bath, physiotherapy, compression underwear and multivitamin complex.
If the pathology is detected at a late stage and conservative treatment is ineffective, resort to surgical intervention. There are many ways of operative correction, from which it is important to choose the least traumatic and effective:
- Vascular sclerosis;
- Removal of small affected vessels through the spots;
- Radiofrequency coagulation;
- Laser coagulation.
In severe cases, the uterus is removed with or without appendages. Such a serious surgical intervention requires the appointment of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which helps to avoid premature menopause.
Since the lower intestines are located near the uterus, it is important to monitor composition and diet. Wheat bran improves peristalsis and lactic acid products support the microflora.
In addition, the abundance of plant foods will have a good effect on the condition of the veins: celery, tomatoes, cucumbers, cranberries and cherries. Foods high in iodine, such as seaweed, perfectly restore the venous wall, strengthening it and reducing fragility. For the normal functioning of the organs, it is necessary to drink up to 1, 5-2 liters of water per day.
Example of menu for the day
- Salad with tomatoes and cucumbers;
- Wholemeal bread;
- 1 egg.
- Vegetable soup;
- Mashed potatoes;
- Sauerkraut with cranberries.
- Wholemeal bread;
- A slice of cheese.
It is undesirable to use products made from white flour and sugar, sweets (chocolates, sweets, biscuits). In a small amount, you can eat honey, jam, marshmallow. Fatty foods are contraindicated because they cause blood clots. Food is best cooked on steam or stew.
A good result with varicose veins gives a contrast bath, it should be sent to the perineum. Physiotherapy exercises can also help, it consists of performing "bicycle", "birch" exercises, etc. . In addition it is recommended to perform breathing exercises and wear compression underwear.
These exercises strengthen the pelvic floor muscles if done with a certain regularity, gradually increasing the complexity of the technique and increasing the duration. There are several types:
- Compression and relaxation. Tighten your muscles, count to three, and then relax. Count to three again and drain. Gradually increase the duration of the exercises to 20 seconds.
- Alternating the intensity of the exercises, the so-called "lift". First floor - it is easy to tighten the muscles and hold them for 3-5 seconds. Increases the intensity and duration of the 2nd floor, and so on. On the 5th-7th floor, do the exercises in reverse order: from a pronounced load to a weak one.
- Rapid muscle contraction and relaxation.
- Pushing is the tension of the muscles involved in the effort. It is similar to attempts during the process of defecation or childbirth.
Complications of the disease
Why is the disease dangerous? If varicose veins of the cervix are not diagnosed in time, complications can occur that will lead to impaired reproductive function:
- Damage to the veins.
- Massive hemorrhage.
- Inflammation of the uterus and appendages.
- Impossibility to get pregnant and give birth to a child.
The disease can progress and lead to the development of the following conditions:
- Functional insufficiency of the genitals.
- Thrombosis, more common in pregnant women.
- Abdominal pain.
- Increased anxiety and irritability.
The disease greatly complicates intimate life, up to the development of vaginismus and fear of sexual intercourse.
Prevention of varicose veins of the uterus
To prevent pathology of the uterine veins, it is necessary to increase physical activity, eat properly and engage in special gymnastics. With varicose veins, it is helpful to rest your legs up to improve flow.
It is not necessary to make a diagnosis based on the signs yourself, as even a doctor is not always able to tell if there is a pathology or if these are symptoms of other gynecological diseases. Pain syndrome does not imply the presence of varicose veins of the uterus.
Conclusion and Conclusion
The disease leads to a violation of the hormonal background in a woman and the failure of the menstrual cycle. With premature detection of varicose veins, complications can occur and infertility can develop. Women who have been diagnosed with this disease need regular scheduled examination and control of the course of the disease. This will prevent complications and prevent the progression of the pathology. If the disease has already become complicated and conservative treatment does not work, it is necessary to consider the possibility of surgical intervention.